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Class: Antibiotic, Cephalosporin
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits mucopeptide synthesis in bacterial cell wall.
C max is 45 to 90 mcg/mL (500 mg and 1 g doses).IM
C max is 17 to 39 mcg/mL (500 mg and 1 g doses). T max is about 1 hr.
Ceftazidime is less than 10% protein bound. It is excreted in human milk in low concentrations.
The t ½ is about 1.9 to 2 hr. About 80% to 90% is excreted unchanged by the kidneys. Renal Cl is about 100 mL/min. Plasma Cl is about 115 mL/min.
Special PopulationsRenal Function Impairment
The t ½ is significantly prolonged. Dosage adjustments are recommended.
Indications and Usage
Treatment of infections of lower respiratory tract, skin and skin structures, urinary tract, bone and joint; treatment of gynecological infections; treatment of intra-abdominal infections; treatment of septicemia and CNS infections including meningitis caused by susceptible strains of specific microorganisms; concomitant antibiotic therapy.
Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins.
Dosage and AdministrationAdults
IV/IM 250 mg to 2 g q 8 to 12 hr.Children 1 mo to 12 yr
IV 30 to 50 mg/kg q 8 hr (max, 6 g/day).Newborns under 4 wk
IV 30 mg/kg q 12 hr.
Store sterile powder at room temperature and protect from light. When reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection, solution is stable for 7 days if refrigerated and for 18 to 24 hr when stored at room temperature. If frozen immediately after reconstitution, solution is stable for 3 mo. Completely thaw frozen preparation at room temperature before use. After thawing, solution may be stored for 18 to 24 hr at room temperature or 4 days in refrigerator. Do not refreeze.
Increased risk of nephrotoxicity.
Do not add aminoglycosides to ceftazidime solutions because inactivation of both drugs may result; administer at separate sites if concurrent therapy is indicated.Sodium bicarbonate
Do not dilute ceftazidime with sodium bicarbonate.
Laboratory Test Interactions
May cause false-positive urine glucose test results with Benedict solution, Fehling solution, or Clinitest tablets but not with enzyme-based tests (eg, Clinistix , Tes-Tape ); false-positive test results for proteinuria with acid and denaturization-precipitation tests; false-positive direct Coombs test result in certain patients (eg, those with azotemia); false elevations in urinary 17-ketosteroid values.
Nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; anorexia; abdominal pain or cramps; flatulence; colitis, including pseudomembranous colitis.
Pyuria; renal dysfunction; dysuria; reversible interstitial nephritis; hematuria; toxic nephropathy.
Eosinophilia; neutropenia; lymphocytosis; leukocytosis; thrombocytopenia; thrombocytosis; decreased platelet function; anemia; aplastic anemia; hemorrhage.
Hepatic dysfunction; cholestatic jaundice; abnormal LFT results.
Hypersensitivity, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis; candidal overgrowth; serum sickness–like reactions (eg, skin rashes, polyarthritis, arthralgia, fever); phlebitis; thrombophlebitis, and pain at injection site.
Category B .
Excreted in breast milk.
Reactions range from mild to life-threatening. Administer drug with caution to penicillin-sensitive patients because of possible cross-reactivity.
Use drug with caution in patients with renal impairment. Dosage adjustment based on renal function may be required.
May result in bacterial or fungal overgrowth of nonsusceptible microorganisms.
Consider in patients in whom diarrhea develops.
Neuromuscular excitability, asterixis, seizures, encephalopathy.
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