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Some commonly used brand names are:
In the U.S.—
Generic name product may be available in the U.S.
Another commonly used name is INH .
Isoniazid (eye-soe-NYE-a-zid) is used to treat tuberculosis (TB) or prevent its return (reactivation). It may be given alone, or in combination with other medicines, to treat TB or to prevent its return (reactivation). This medicine may also be used for other problems as determined by your doctor.
This medicine may cause some serious side effects, including damage to the liver. Liver damage is more likely to occur in patients over 50 years of age. You and your doctor should talk about the good this medicine will do, as well as the risks of taking it.
If you are being treated for active tuberculosis (TB): To help clear up your TB infection completely, you must keep taking this medicine for the full time of treatment, even if you begin to feel better. This is very important. It is also important that you do not miss any doses.
Isoniazid is available only with your doctor"s prescription, in the following dosage forms:
Before Using This Medicine
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For isoniazid, the following should be considered:
Allergies—Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to isoniazid, ethionamide (e.g., Trecator-SC), pyrazinamide, or niacin (e.g., Nicobid, nicotinic acid). Also tell your health care professional if you are allergic to any other substances, such as foods, preservatives, or dyes.
Pregnancy—Isoniazid has not been shown to cause birth defects or other problems in humans or animals. Studies in rats and rabbits have shown that isoniazid may increase the risk of fetal death. However, tuberculosis is a very serious disease and many women have been treated with isoniazid during pregnancy with no problems occurring in their babies.
Breast-feeding—Isoniazid passes into the breast milk. However, isoniazid has not been reported to cause problems in nursing babies. Also, there is not enough isoniazid in breast milk to protect or treat babies who have been exposed to tuberculosis.
Children—Isoniazid can cause serious side effects in any patient. Therefore, it is especially important that you discuss with the child"s doctor the good that this medicine may do as well as the risks of using it.
Older adults—Hepatitis may be especially likely to occur in patients over 50 years of age, who are usually more sensitive than younger adults to the effects of isoniazid.
Other medicines—Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking or receiving isoniazid it is especially important that your health care professional know if you are taking any of the following:
Other medical problems—The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of isoniazid. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:
Proper Use of This Medicine
Make certain your health care professional knows if you are on a low-sodium, low-sugar, or any other special diet. Most medicines contain more than just the active ingredient, and many liquid medicines contain alcohol.
If you are taking isoniazid by mouth and it upsets your stomach, take it with food. Antacids may also help. However, do not take aluminum-containing antacids within 1 hour of taking isoniazid. They may keep this medicine from working properly.
For patients taking the oral liquid form of isoniazid:
To help clear up your tuberculosis (TB) completely, it is very important that you keep taking this medicine for the full time of treatment , even if you begin to feel better after a few weeks. You may have to take it every day for as long as 6 months to 2 years. It is important that you do not miss any doses .
Your doctor may also want you to take pyridoxine (e.g., Hexa-Betalin, vitamin B 6 ) every day to help prevent or lessen some of the side effects of isoniazid. This is not usually needed in children, who receive enough pyridoxine in their diet. If it is needed, it is very important to take pyridoxine every day along with this medicine. Do not miss any doses .
Dosing—The dose of isoniazid will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor"s orders or the directions on the label . The following information includes only the average doses of isoniazid. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.
The number of tablets or teaspoonfuls of syrup that you take depends on the strength of the medicine.
Missed dose—If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.
Storage—To store this medicine:
Precautions While Using This Medicine
It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits. Also, check with your doctor immediately if blurred vision or loss of vision, with or without eye pain, occurs during treatment . Your doctor may want you to have your eyes checked by an ophthalmologist (eye doctor).
If your symptoms do not improve within 2 to 3 weeks, or if they become worse, check with your doctor.
Certain foods such as cheese (Swiss or Cheshire) or fish (tuna, skipjack, or Sardinella) may rarely cause reactions in some patients taking isoniazid. Check with your doctor if redness or itching of the skin, hot feeling, fast or pounding heartbeat, sweating, chills or clammy feeling, headache, or lightheadedness occurs while you are taking this medicine.
Liver problems may be more likely to occur if you drink alcoholic beverages regularly while you are taking this medicine. Also, the regular use of alcohol may keep this medicine from working properly. Therefore, you should strictly limit the amount of alcoholic beverages you drink while you are taking this medicine .
If this medicine causes you to feel very tired or very weak; or causes clumsiness; unsteadiness; a loss of appetite; nausea; numbness, tingling, burning, or pain in the hands and feet; or vomiting, check with your doctor immediately . These may be early warning signs of more serious liver or nerve problems that could develop later.
Side Effects of This Medicine
Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:
Clumsiness or unsteadiness; dark urine; loss of appetite; nausea or vomiting; numbness, tingling, burning, or pain in hands and feet; unusual tiredness or weakness; yellow eyes or skin
Blurred vision or loss of vision, with or without eye pain; convulsions (seizures); fever and sore throat; joint pain; mental depression; mood or other mental changes; skin rash; unusual bleeding or bruising
Other side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. However, check with your doctor if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome:
Diarrhea; stomach pain
For injection form
Irritation at the place of injection
Dark urine and yellowing of the eyes or skin (signs of liver problems) are more likely to occur in patients over 50 years of age.
Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your doctor.
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